​We use a number of different ratings to measure PTSD, depression, anxiety, somatisation, pain, level of social functioning and quality of life in our patients. Some ratings are completed by the patients themselves while others are completed by a clinician.

Self-rating scales

The following self-rating scales are widely used in the field of psychiatry. They have been validated and have been used in many languages and are used frequently in clinical studies in the field. They have been applied in studies on PTSD in a number of patient groups. The scales are available in Arabic, Danish, English, and Farsi.


The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) asses the severity of PTSD symptoms. The first 16 questions of the HTQ, Part IV (symptoms part) are used to monitor PTSD symptoms. These 16 questions cover all PTSD criteria in accordance with ICD-10 as well as DSM-IV, 4 extra items will be added to cover PTSD criteria in accordance with DSM 5.


Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-25) asseses the severity of anxiety and depression symptoms. This is a short version of the Symptom Checklist -90 (SCL-90). It consists of 25 questions, 10 regarding anxiety and 15 regarding depression. In addition to this, the somatisation part of SCL-90 is used.


WHO-5 evaluates quality of life, consisting of five questions with each six possible answers. The questionnaire has been used to assess the quality of life in a number of psychiatric diagnostic groups.  In addition, the scale has been used to assess overall treatment effects in the field of psychiatry.


Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) measures functional impairment with regard to family, work and social network using three visual analogue scales from 0-10. Evaluation of the scale has shown that it is sensitive to treatment effects in psychiatric patients.


The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) assesses sleep quality and the severity of sleep disturbances. PSQI consists of 19 items and measures seven components of sleep: sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and daytime dysfunction. The component scores have each a range of 0–3 points and are added to yield one global PSQI score (range of 0–21 points) distinguishes good sleep (PSQI total score ≤5) from poor sleep (PSQI total score >5).


Disturbing Dreams and Nightmare Severity Index (DDNSI) assesses frequency and severity of nightmares.


REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSC) consists of "yes" or "no" questions about sleep behavior. It has been developed to assess the most prominent clinical features of REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder.


Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) estimates level of pain using four Visual Analogue Scales (VAS); one for back pain, one for pain in the upper extremities, one for pain in the lower extremities and one for headache. The patients mark the symptom intensity on a 10 cm long scale with 10 being the highest symptom intensity.


Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) has a somatisation section, which is a 1-5 Likert format with 5 being the highest symptom level.


Psychotherapy Preferences and Experiences Scale (PEX1) measures preferences and experiences of psychotherapeutic interventions. It consists of 25 questions.

Observer-rating scales

Hamilton ratings on depression and anxiety (Ham-D, Ham-A)

Besides HTQ and HSCL-25, depression and anxiety are assessed with the Hamilton scales (Ham-D and Ham-A), which are observer scales measuring the progression of depression based on a semi-structured interview. The items on the scales are scored in a 0-4 /0-2 Likert format with 4 being the highest symptom level. Ham-D has 17 items and Ham-A has 14 items.

Global Assessment of Functioning, Function and Symptom section (GAF-F/GAF-S)

These scores are numerical observer scales used to assess the degree of social functionality and the overall severity of symptoms among adults. Each of the two measures consists of a number between 0 and 100 with 100 representing the highest level of functioning. GAF-F and GAF-S are estimated by a physician at pre-assessment and at follow-up.

Responsible editor