​References - The WHO-five Well-being Index (WHO-5)


ALLGAIER, A.K., KRAMER, D., SARAVO, B., MERGL, R., FEJTKOVA, S. and HEGERL, U., 2013. Beside the Geriatric Depression Scale: the WHO-Five Well-being Index as a valid screening tool for depression in nursing homes. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 28(11), pp. 1197-1204.
ALLGAIER, A.K., PIETSCH, K., FRUHE, B., PRAST, E., SIGL-GLOCKNER, J. and SCHULTE-KORNE, G., 2012. Depression in pediatric care: is the WHO-Five Well-Being Index a valid screening instrument for children and adolescents? General hospital psychiatry, 34(3), pp. 234-241.
AWATA, S., BECH, P., KOIZUMI, Y., SEKI, T., KURIYAMA, S., HOZAWA, A., OHMORI, K., NAKAYA, N., MATSUOKA, H. and TSUJI, I., 2007. Validity and utility of the Japanese version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index in the context of detecting suicidal ideation in elderly community residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(1), pp. 77-88.
AWATA, S., BECH, P., YOSHIDA, S., HIRAI, M., SUZUKI, S., YAMASHITA, M., OHARA, A., HINOKIO, Y., MATSUOKA, H. and OKA, Y., 2007. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index in the context of detecting depression in diabetic patients. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 61(1), pp. 112-119.
BECH, P., 1999. Health-related quality of life measurements in the assessment of pain clinic results. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 43(9), pp. 893-896.
BECH, P., 2001. Male depression and aggression as pathways to major depression. In: Dawson A and Tylee A (eds) Depression: Social and economic time bomb. London: BMJ Books, pp 63-66.
BECH, P., 2004. Measuring the dimensions of psychological general well-being by the WHO-5. QoL Newsletter, 32, pp.15-16.
BECH, P., MOSES, R., GOMIS, R., 2003. The effect of prandial glucose regulation with repaglinide on treatment satisfaction, wellbeing and health status in patients with pharmacotherapy-naïve Type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Qual Life Res, 12, pp. 413-425
BECH, P., 2012. Clinical psychometrics. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
BECH, P., GUDEX, C. and STAEHR JOHANSEN, K., 1996. The WHO (Ten) Well-Being Index: Validation in diabetes. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 65(4), pp. 183-190.
BECH, P., OLSEN, L., KJOLLER, M. and RASMUSSEN, N., 2003. Measuring well-being rather than the absence of distress symptoms: A comparison of the SF-36 mental health subscale and the WHO-Five well-being scale. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12(2), pp. 85-91.
BIRKET-SMITH, M., HANSEN, B.H., HANASH, J.A., HANSEN, J.F. and RASMUSSEN, A., 2009. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients-6-year survival. Journal of psychosomatic research, 67(1), pp. 5-10.
BLOM, E.H., BECH, P., HOGBERG, G., LARSSON, J.O. and SERLACHIUS, E., 2012. Screening for depressed mood in an adolescent psychiatric context by brief self-assessment scales--testing psychometric validity of WHO-5 and BDI-6 indices by latent trait analyses. Health and quality of life outcomes, 10, pp. 149-7525-10-149.
BONSIGNORE, M., BARKOW, K., JESSEN, F. and HEUN, R., 2001. Validity of the five-item WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5) in an elderly population. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience, 251(SUPPL. 2), pp. 27-31.
DE WIT, M., POUWER, F., GEMKE, R.J.B.J., DELEMARRE-VAN DE WAAL, H.A. and SNOEK, F.J., 2007. Validation of the WHO-5 well-being index in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care, 30(8), pp. 2003-2006.
ELLERVIK, C., KVETNY, J., CHRISTENSEN, K.S., VESTERGAARD, M. and BECH, P., 2014. Prevalence of depression, quality of life and antidepressant treatment in the Danish General Suburban Population Study. Nordic journal of psychiatry, .
EUROFOUND, , European Quality of Life Survey 2012. Available:].
FURUYA, M., HAYASHINO, Y., TSUJII, S., ISHII, H. and FUKUHARA, S., 2013. Comparative validity of the WHO-5 Well-Being Index and two-question instrument for screening depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetologica, 50(2), pp. 117-121.
GARNEFSKI, N., KRAAIJ, V., SCHROEVERS, M.J. and SOMSEN, G.A., 2008. Post-traumatic growth after a myocardial infarction: A matter of personality, psychological health, or cognitive coping? Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 15(4), pp. 270-277.
GILL, T.M. and FEINSTEIN, A.R., 1994. A critical appraisal of the quality of quality-of-life measurements. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 272(8), pp. 619-626.
HAJOS, T.R., POUWER, F., SKOVLUND, S.E., DEN OUDSTEN, B.L., GEELHOED-DUIJVESTIJN, P.H., TACK, C.J. and SNOEK, F.J., 2013. Psychometric and screening properties of the WHO-5 well-being index in adult outpatients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association, 30(2), pp. e63-9.
HALL, T., KRAHN, G.L., HORNER-JOHNSON, W., LAMB, G. and REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTER EXPERT PANEL ON HEALTH MEASUREMENT, 2011. Examining functional content in widely used Health-Related Quality of Life scales. Rehabilitation psychology, 56(2), pp. 94-99.
HENKEL, V., MERGL, R., KOHNEN, R., MAIER, W., MOLLER, H.J. and HEGERL, U., 2003. Identifying depression in primary care: a comparison of different methods in a prospective cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 326(7382), pp. 200-201.
HEUN, R., BURKART, M., MAIER, W., BECH, P. 1999. Internal and external validity of the WHO Well-Being Scale in the elderly general population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 99, pp.171-178
KRIEGER, T., ZIMMERMANN, J., HUFFZIGER, S., UBL, B., DIENER, C., KUEHNER, C. and GROSSE HOLTFORTH, M., 2014. Measuring depression with a well-being index: further evidence for the validity of the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5) as a measure of the severity of depression. Journal of affective disorders, 156, pp. 240-244.
LIWOWSKY, I., KRAMER, D., MERGL, R., BRAMESFELD, A., ALLGAIER, A., POPPEL, E. and HEGERL, U., 2009. Screening for depression in the older long-term unemployed. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 44(8), pp. 622-627.
LOWE, B., SPITZER, R.L., GRAFE, K., KROENKE, K., QUENTER, A., ZIPFEL, S., BUCHHOLZ, C., WITTE, S. and HERZOG, W., 2004. Comparative validity of three screening questionnaires for DSM-IV depressive disorders and physicians' diagnoses. Journal of affective disorders, 78(2), pp. 131-140.
LUCAS-CARRASCO, R., ALLERUP, P. and BECH, P., 2012. The Validity of the WHO-5 as an early screening for apathy in an elderly population. Current gerontology and geriatrics research, 2012, pp. 171857.
MERGL, R., SEIDSCHECK, I., ALLGAIER, A.K., MOLLER, H.J., HEGERL, U. and HENKEL, V., 2007. Depressive, anxiety, and somatoform disorders in primary care: prevalence and recognition. Depression and anxiety, 24(3), pp. 185-195.
REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE WHO, 1998. Use of Well-Being Measures in Primary Health Care - The DepCare Project. Health for All, Target 12, 1998
SAIPANISH, R., LOTRAKUL, M. and SUMRITHE, S., 2009. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index in primary care patients. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 63(2), pp. 141-146.
SCHNEIDER, C.B., PILHATSCH, M., RIFATI, M., JOST, W.H., WODARZ, F., EBERSBACH, G., DJUNDJA, D., FUCHS, G., GIES, A., ODIN, P., REIFSCHNEIDER, G., WOLZ, M., BOTTESI, A., BAUER, M., REICHMANN, H. and STORCH, A., 2010. Utility of the WHO-Five Well-being Index as a screening tool for depression in Parkinson's disease. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 25(6), pp. 777-783.
SCHUTTE, S., CHASTANG, J.F., MALARD, L., PARENT-THIRION, A., VERMEYLEN, G. and NIEDHAMMER, I., 2014. Psychosocial working conditions and psychological well-being among employees in 34 European countries. International archives of occupational and environmental health, .
SIBAI, A.M., CHAAYA, M., TOHME, R.A., MAHFOUD, Z. and ALAMIN, H., 2009. Validation of the Arabic version of the 5-item WHO Well Being Index in elderly population. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 24(1), pp. 106-107.
SISASK, M., VARNIK, A., KOLVES, K., KONSTABEL, K. and WASSERMAN, D., 2008. Subjective psychological well-being (WHO-5) in assessment of the severity of suicide attempt. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 62(6), pp. 431-435.
STAEHR JOHANSEN, K., 1989. Multicentre continuous subcutanous infusion pump feasibility and acceptability study experience. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
TOPP, C.W., ØSTERGAARD, S.D., SØNDERGAARD, S., BECH, P., 2015. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index: a systematic review of the literature. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84 (3), pp. 167-176.
VOLINN, E., YANG, B., HE, J., SHENG, X., YING, J., VOLINN, W., ZHANG, J. and ZUO, Y., 2010. West china hospital set of measures in Chinese to evaluate back pain treatment. Pain Medicine, 11(5), pp. 637-647.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE, 1998. Use of well-being measures in primary health care - the DepCare project health for all. Target 12. E60246. Geneva: WHO.

WHO-5 was used in the 
- WHO Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behaviours SUPRE-MISS. 
- Management of Mental and Brain Disorders and Substance Dependence
  ( World Health Organization, Geneva 2002)

-  OBSQID project (OBSQID Project Newsletter No. 9, July 1998)

Responsible editor